1947 Partition of Indian Subcontinent, Birth Of A New State: Pakistan and Millions of people killed

India got Independence from British colonial rule and on 15th August 1947, the transfer of power took place. Good news came with bad news.

The good news was the Independence of India and the bad news was the Partition of the British Indian Empire into two new Independent states: India and Pakistan.

1947 Partition led to massive riots outbreak in India, millions of people were displaced and killed, and women were kidnapped and raped.

The Basis of 1947 Partition-Two Nation Theory

The two-nation theory was the basis of the 1947 partition and the creation of Pakistan. The two-nation theory was given by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. According to the two-nation theory- Religion is the unifying force of a nation, rather than culture or ethnicity. Hence, Hindus and Muslims are two different nations that cannot coexist.

Finally, the partition of the Indian Subcontinent happened and on 14th August 1947, Pakistan came into existence. The idea behind this partition was Two Nation Theory. For 24 years the two-nation theory was held good but on 16th December 1971, the idea behind the creation of Pakistan collapsed.

The two-nation theory proved to be wrong, Language and culture trumped religion. Two nation theory of Muhamad Ali Jinnah collapsed, and East Pakistan became Bangladesh.

Bangladesh liberation war started on 26th March 1971 and finally, on 16th December 1971, Bangladesh got Independence. Bangladesh is the live example of the fall of Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s two-nation theory that states religion is the unifying force of a nation.

Consequences of the 1947 Partition

Finally, after 200 years of British rule, Indian freedom fighters got India free from British colonial rule. On behalf of Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s two-nation theory.

It was decided in August 1947 that British Indian Empire is going to be divided into two new separate nations, India and Pakistan, India for the Hindu majority and Pakistan for the Muslim majority.

Consequences of the 1947 partition were that massive riots happened in India, In these riots, almost 2 million Indians and Pakistanis were killed and around 14 million were uprooted and displaced.

1947 partition saw the most massive mass migration in human history. Women were kidnapped and raped, and more than 50,000 women were raped particularly in the Punjab region.

In the 1947 riots, the most affected regions due to the 1947 partition were Punjab and Bengal. Most deaths happened in Punjab followed by Bengal and so on, women were kidnapped, raped, forced to parade naked, and then murdered.

Indian Muslims stand on the 1947 partition

In August 1947 it was decided that the Indian subcontinent will be divided into two new independent states-India and Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s two-nation theory was the basis of the creation of Pakistan and the 1947 partition of the Indian subcontinent.

Do Indian Muslims have faith in Jinnah’s two-nation theory or it was just a few people of India who decided on this partition? 23rd March 1940, was the day when the Indian Muslim league passed a proposal for a separate nation that is Pakistan, this day is also known as Pakistan Resolution Day.

1945 and 1946 elections happened on the basis of this Pakistan resolution, which was put up by the Indian Muslim League. Central Assembly Election 1945- 30 seats were reserved for Muslims out of 102, and Muslim League won all these 30 seats. Provincial Elections 1946-Muslim League won 429 seats out of 492 seats.

Read About: Indian National Army: The Forgotten Army of India

You will be amazed to know that these seats won by Muslim League were from the area/constituency which is currently in India and they were supposed to be part of India not of Pakistan. 1945 and 1946 election results show that Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s-‘two nation theory’ was backed by the Muslims of India which resulted in the 1947 partition and creation of Pakistan.

Sardar Patel’s view on the creation of Pakistan and Muslims

After the 1947 partition, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel on 3rd January 1948 (Kolkata) said in a speech that Muslims helped in the creation of Pakistan.

In his Kolkata speech, Patel said “Most of the Muslims who have stayed back in Hindustan, helped in creating Pakistan. Now, I don’t understand what has changed in one night that they are asking us not to doubt their loyalty”.

Sardar Patel’s speech in Kolkata made one thing very clear, it was Muslims who helped Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the creation of Pakistan. Most of the Muslims who helped in the creation of Pakistan didn’t go to Pakistan after the 1947 partition.

Why all the Muslims didn’t go to Pakistan after the 1947 partition?

In August 1947, it was decided that the Indian subcontinent will be divided into two separate states-India and Pakistan. The basis for this partition was ‘RELIGION’. India for the Hindu majority population and Pakistan for the Muslim majority. Then, why did all the Muslims didn’t go to Pakistan?

Most of the leaders were in favour of complete population exchange including DR. BR Ambedkar. In fact, Ambedkar had come up with a basic framework on how to do it and deal with the issues arising due to complete population exchange.

India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Gandhiji were the main reason, behind the incomplete population exchange during the 1947 partition. These two were the key decision-makers and they both were not in favour of complete population exchange, despite the fact that India was divided on the basis of religion.

When Dr. Syama Prasad Mukherjee requested Gandhiji for agreeing with Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s proposal for population exchange, Gandhiji’s reply was that the partition of India was done on a territorial basis, not on a religious basis.

Nehru-West Bengal CM Communication

In communication with West Bengal Chief Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru said “I have been quite a certain right from the beginning that everything should be done to prevent Hindus in east Bengal from migrating to West Bengal…I think the Hindu leaders of East Bengal, who have come away, have done no service to their people. If as you suggest things have gone too far already, then naturally, we shall all do what we can but I shudder at the prospect and the magnitude of the human misery that will come in its train. To the last, I shall try to check migration even if there is war”.

(Source: Daily Pioneer Report)

Direct Action Day declared by Muhammad Ali Jinnah on 16th August 1946 resulted in the partition of Bengal on religious grounds, East Bengal and West Bengal. Later, East Bengal became part of East Pakistan while West Bengal became part of India.

Read About: The Man Who Got India Freedom Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, 1857 Mutiny and India’s Freedom

Bengali Hindus were slaughtered in East Bengal and this persecution was done on the basis of religion. Even after knowing all this, Jawaharlal Nehru was not in favour of population exchange. In fact, he was ready for a war to stop migrating Hindus from East Bengal to West Bengal.

The 1950 Accord (Nehru-Liaquat pact)

On 8th April 1950, an accord was signed between the Government of India and the government of Pakistan. By signing this accord, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistani Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan pledged to secure the ‘Minorities’ of their side and give equality of citizenship regardless of religion.

Key points of the 1950 Accord

  • Both sides had to help recover the looted property
  • Both sides had to help in the recovery of kidnapped women
  • Not to recognize forced conversions
  • Refugees were allowed to return safely to dispose of their property

As a result of this 1950 Accord, Muslims who had left West Bengal came back and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru ensured that their property was restored to them. However, in Pakistan and Bangladesh minorities are persecuted even today on the grounds of religion.

In 1947 partition of the Indian subcontinent happened, At that time the Hindu population in Pakistan was around 24% and today they are around 1% or even less. In East Pakistan (Today’s Bangladesh) Hindu population was around 30% and today they are even less than 7% of the population.

While in India Muslim population has gone up from 10.4% to 14% or even more than that, Minorities in India are given more rights than in any other country in the world including Muslim countries as well. By looking at the figures and the condition of the minority population, one thing can be said India kept its promise made in the 1950 Accord while Pakistan didn’t.


The 1947 partition of India happened due to the personal interests of some politicians of India and the Indian Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The two-Nation Theory of Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the basis of the creation of Pakistan.

Partition of India happened in 1947 because Muhammad Ali Jinnah was backed by the Indian Muslims. If anyone is having doubt about it, then they should check the election results of 1945 and 1946. People who really want to know the reasons behind the 1947 partition should definitely hear the Kolkata speech of Sardar Patel given on 3rd January 1948.

Spread The Love By Sharing

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top